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When should breeders be replaced? How do I foster mice? How well does this strain breed at JAX? Where can I find information about how my specific strain breeds? Can this transgenic breed as a homozygote? How many pups per litter should I expect? How do I know when to refresh my colony?

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Can I breed my humanized mice? What is Love Mash? My mice are fighting — now what? No, unfortunately non-productive breeders are not covered by our credit policy. Learn more about our credit policy. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. ISBN Also see the following article: 6 steps for setting up timed pregnant mice. Some data on your strain may be in the Handbook on Genetically Standardized Mice; get a copy here. There may be additional information in the Technical Support section of the strain datasheets under Breeding Considerations.

Reproductive performance can vary significantly at different institutions due to environmental factors. Litter sizes vary by strain. In this way the lifetime efficiency is increased. Cows can be rebred in weeks after parturition. The length of life of the parent is an important part of breeding efficiency, because the return over feed cost is greater in increased length of life. Also, it affects the possibility of improving the breed.

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The longer the life of the parents, the smaller the percentage of cows needed for replacement every year. Some of the management suggestions which will tend to improve breeding efficiency of cattle are listed below. Keep accurate breeding records of dates of heat, service and parturition. Use records in predicting the dates of heat and observe the females carefully for heat. Breed cows during near the end of mid heat or heat period. Have females with abnormal discharges examined and treated by veterinarian. Call a veterinarian to examine females not settled after three services.

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Get the females checked for pregnancy at 45 days to 60 days after breeding. Buy replacements only from healthy herds and test them before putting them in your herd. Have the females give birth in isolation, preferably in a parturition room and clean up and sterilize the area once parturition is over. Follow a programme of disease prevention, test and vaccination for diseases affecting reproduction and vaccinate the animals against such diseases.

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Practice a general sanitation programme. Supply adequate nutrition. Employ the correct technique. Provide suitable shelter management. Detect silent or weak heat, by using a teaser bull. Selection and culling are the two sides of the same coin. Selection is the process in which certain individuals in a population are included for becoming the parents of the next generation.

Automatically some are excluded for the purpose which are culled. Natural selection has been going on since ages where animals which were stronger, which had better survivability and which were in more unison with the environment around them, found a better chance to reproduce. Thus certain genes for certain characters got more chance to be selected to form individuals in the subsequent generations. Since domestication of cattle, man has been looking for superior phenotypes in traits useful to him and selecting such animals to form the parental generation. This is man made artificial selection.

Now man has progressed one step further in making estimates of genotypes from the study of phenotypes and making use of that information in artificial selection. There is only one way to select and that is to "keep the best and cull the poorest. The various selection methods are techniques for identifying or estimating the genetic values of individual candidates for selection.

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The procedure discussed here apply to selection for quantitative trails. Performance test is a measure of the phenotypic value of the individual candidates for selection. Since the phenotypic value is determined by both genetic and environmental influences, the performance test is an estimate, not a measure of the genetic value. The occurrence of this estimate depends upon the heritability of the trait i. A pedegree is a record of an individual's ancestors including its parents. This information is valuable because each individual possesses a sample half of the genes from each parent. If we can precisely know an individual's phenotype, little is gained by considering pedegree in selection.

Pedegree considerations are useful when we do not have sufficient accurate records of production of the individual. Also, it is useful in the early selection when the traits in question might not have expressed themselves.


It is also useful for selection of males when the traits selected for are expressed only by the female such as milk production in dairy cattle. Progeny testing In this method we evaluate the breeding value by a study of the expression of the trait in its offsprings. Individuality tells us what an animal seems to be, his pedegree tells us what he ought to be, but the performance of his progeny tells us what he is. Advantages of progney testing a.

High accuracy when many progeny are obtained. Disadvantages progney testing a. Long generation interval. Requires high reproductive rate. Low selection intensity. Show ring selection Selection on the basis of show ring performance has had considerable value in the past. Essentially this selection has been directed towards bringing the conformation of the animal to some ideal conformation. This improvement has been based on two goals: i improvement conformation, and ii correlated response.

Improvement of conformation has economic value because a part of the sale price is determined by the conformation of the individual. The ideal type was chosen so that, in the opinion of the judges, the animal possessing this conformation was most likely to be a profitable producer. In other words, the judges were attempting to stress traits of conformation which are corrected with productive ability. With the advent of record keeping it was found that direct selection for performance traits resulted in much faster progress than selection through correlated conformation traits.

Also, when subjected to intensive study, many of the correlations between performance and show ring were found to be of non-genetic origin. If the correlations are of genetic origin, direct selection for performance should improve conformation as well as the reverse situation. The show ring has been a good forum for discussion of what constitutes ideal type and good management and has produced dramatic changes in the conformation of some species.

This has resulted primarily from education of the breeders, however, for most animals which are presented in the ring are good and selection differential among these animals is usually so small as to produce little change. Advantages of show ring selection 1. It enables breeders to exchange ideas and experience. It allows comparisons among superior animals both within and between breeds. It allows new breeders to make contact with established breeders. Disadvantages of show ring selection 1.

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Emphasis is usually placed on traits of little economic importance. Clever fitting and showmanship can mask defects of various kinds. Differences between exhibited animals are usually small. Conformation and production traits usually have low genetic correlations.

The traits may be of different measures of some underlying trait. For example.

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If the same genes produce response in several traits. This condition is referred to as pleiotrophy. Correlated responses are common. Selection for increased milk yield produces a correlated decrease in the per cent of fat in the milk of dairy cows. Correlated response may be advantageously used in selection programme. For example feed efficiency is expensive to measure because it requires both weight gain and feed intake on each individual, whereas weight gain requires neither feed weight nor individual feeding.

The ultimate aim of the breeder is to evolve outstanding and improved type of animals which can render better service to man. Selection and system of breeding constitute the only tools available to the breeder for improvement of animals.

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Since new genes can not be created though they can be recombined into more desirable groupings. Systems of breeding has been broadly divided as under 1. In breeding -breeding of the related animals. Out breeding -breeding of the unrelated animals.